Print and None
>>> 'Go Bears' 'Go Bears' >>> print('Go Bears') Go Bears
>>> None >>> print(None) None
None is special in Python, it represents nothing.
A function that does not explicitly return a value will return
None is not displayed by the interpreter as the value of an expression
>>> x = -2 >>> x -2 >>> x = print(-2) -2 >>> x >>> print(x) None
An interesting example:
>>> print(print(1), print(2)) 1 1 None None
Pure Functions & Non-Pure Functions
- Pure functions just return values
- Non-pure functions have side effects
With a def statement:
- A new function is created
- Name is bound to that funciton in the current frame
With a Call expression:
- The operator & operand(s) are evaluated
- The function (value of operator) is called on the arguments (value of operands)
Note: A name evaluates to the value bound to that name in the earlist frame of the current environment in which that name is found.
Miscellaneous Python Features
|Operator||What it does|
>>> from operator import * >>> mod(3, 2) 1 >>> mod(3.0, 2) 1.0 >>> mod(3.1, 2) 1.1 >>> mod(3.2, 2) 1.2000000000000002
A statement is executed by the interpreter to perform an action.
A compound statement consists of one or more clauses, each of which has a header and a suite.
def is a compound statement.
- The first header of the compound statement determines the statement type
- The subsequent header of each clause controls the suite that follows
Falsey values in Python:
False, 0, '', None,  # There are more!!
>>> i, total = 0, 0 >>> while i < 3: ... i += 1 ... total += i ... >>> i 3 >>> total 6
Execution Rule for
- Evaluate the header’s expression
- If it is truthy, execute the suite, then return to step 1.
andreturns the first falsey value, if any.
orreturns the first truthy value, if any.
ordo not short-circuit, they return the last value.
Things to Take Note
Here’s something for you to ponder:
>>> 0 == False True >>> 1 == True True >>> 2 == True False >>> 2 == False False
More to ponder: Why does the boolean value get casted to an integer first, and not the integer casted to a boolean first?
Python Operator Precedence
Common ones in descending precedence (most binding to least binding):
Here is the official Python Operator Precedence Chart in case you’re interested.
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